The large, ominous doors opened wide with a screech as I forced myself to go inside the sinister dwelling that cloaked everything around it with a aura of death. Thump, my heart pounded as I pushed back my fears and entered into one of the rooms. Smoke rose and lights flashed on and off, illuminating an eerie figure lurking in the shadows toward the back. Hearing the screams coming from the other rooms, I timidly walked closer, and I saw in full detail the monster’s true form, he was pale horrifying demon, straight from hell, with bloodshot eyes and blood still leaking over his sharpened teeth. I fled upon sight of him, screaming all the way to where my cousin was waiting safely
Lacrosse is one of oldest sports ever and North America’s first. It was first played by Native Americans in the 1400’s. Baggataway (thats what they called it) was much more violent then what we have now. Its original purpose was to solve conflicts, but then became a drill for the battlefield. Sometimes goals were a certain rock or tree that you would have to hit, or other tribes would put up posts that the ball would have to go through like we do now. The targets (goals) were spread out as far as 15 miles apart and there were no sidelines. Up to 1,000 players on both teams could play at the same time. They had 3-4 ft long sticks with nets on the end. As you can imagine with that many people on the field at once trying to get one ball into two goals it could get pretty physical. Most of the time braves were nowhere near the ball and much more focused on using the stick as a weapon. The game normally took 2-3 days with breaks from sun-down to sun-up.
When the Europeans came over in the 1500s, they took up the sport and gave it the name we use today, Lacrosse. They gave it that name because according to most accounts, Jean de Brebeuf (a French explorer) was the first to record baggataway. He thought that the stick resembled a bishop’s crozier called la crosse in French.
In 1794 a match between the Seneca and Mohawks resulted in the creating of basic rules. Europeans in Canada began playing the game. Montreal’s Olympic Club organized a team in 1844, specifically to play a match against a Native American team.
George Beers of the MLC rewrote the rules thoroughly in 1867. His rules called for twelve players per team, and named the positions: Goal, point, cover point, first defense, second defense, third defense, center, first attack, second attack, third attack, out home, and in home. He also improved the ball from a wad of deer skin to a hard rubber sphere and constructed a better stick so throwing and catching was easier. For the things he did he is now called “the father of lacrosse”.
In 1881 The first intercollegiate tournament was held at Westchester Polo Grounds in New York. Soon after in 1890 the first women’s lacrosse game was played at St. Leonard’s School in St. Andrew’s, Scotland.
By the 20th century lacrosse was becoming much more popular. In the USA the first collage team started at New York University which was followed by many more in the north-eastern region which spans from Michigan to North Carolina. In 1926 Rosabelle Sinclair reestablished women’s lacrosse in the United States when she started a team at the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore. In the early 1930s the United States Women’s Lacrosse Association (USWLA) was formed as the rule-making body for women’s lacrosse and just after the USWLA held its first national tournament in Greenwich, Connecticut. All these major events were in the east region. The west was not big on lacrosse. Now areas in the west are picking up with major teams in Denver and Notre Dame. Nationwide there about 250,000 people that play both boy’s and girl’s lacrosse.
Slowly and steadily lacrosse is making its way deeper and deeper in the hearts of many Americans and hopefully everybody worldwide. Its the fastest growing sport in the US and one day it might be as popular as soccer is now.
How we Hear
First sound waves enter through the outer ear also called the pinna. The waves come into the ear canal, which ends at the eardrum. The sound causes the eardrum to vibrate which then makes the malleus hammer against the incus. The incus passes the sound waves to the stapes, which transmits the wave information to the entrance of the inner ear called the oval window. This process changes the wave vibrations from low pressure to high pressure so they can be detected by the fluid filled inner ear.
The movement of the oval window transmits the waves through the fluid of your inner ear into the fluid filled cochlea. It then spirals through the cochlea. Next it has to travel through the Corti, which is a membrane with thousands of sensory hair cells attached. Each hair cell contains a bundle of tiny sensory hairs which emerge from the cell. Resting on top of these hairs is a second membrane. When the waves move the fluid in your cochlea, the first membrane vibrates, pushing the hairs against the second membrane. This changes the waves into nerve signals. These travel along the cochlear nerve to your brain. Your brain then pin points the sound. That is why we as humans can here!
The Super Bowl by Logan
ts the final game of the NFL season. The moment all of Americas been waiting for, and my sweet family got me awesome tickets in the back of end zone number two. I watch as the starting Quarter Back for the Steelers takes the field, Ryan White, for the coin toss. Also coming out on the field was the patriots star middle linebacker. I knew that it was going to be a close game. The patriots call heads as the ref throws it up. It lands on tails. Ryan elects to receive.
The two teams set up for the first play. As soon as there set, the patriots kicker raises his hand then kicks it deep to Antonio Brown. I have a hard time seeing the steelers offense walk to onto the field because the guy in front of me has a huge sign and hes keeps on screaming. First and ten, Ryan hikes the ball, drops back to pass, finds a open man, throws it short, but it gets broken up. The next play he gets swatted at the line. Third and ten, Ryan needs a big play. “Hike” the snapper snaps it to Ryan he drops back, then looks around. Finally he throws, but sadly its intercepted by the Patriots. They return it to the one yard line.
“Come on Ryan get your head in the game” I scream. This doesn’t look good. The last thing the steelers wanted was to be down by seven. On the next steeler drive Ryan completes ten out of ten passes then caps it off with a thirty yard touch down pass to a wide open receiver. “Take that Tom Brady” I scream. Every things looking good so far with the steelers up by seven. Ryan only being a rookie haas had a spectacular season. He won fourteen out of sixteen games and lead them through the playoffs. Its the first time ever that a rookie quarter back has brought his team to the super bowl.
“Come on Ryan” I mumble to myself. He takes the snap then quickly throws it to Mike Wallace, but as he does he get hit so hard he fly a couple feet backwards.
“Come on man, get up” I say desperately, but he doesn’t. Doctors quickly take the field. “You can play through it.” The whole stadium is dead quiet. No says a word. There all in shock. Slowly they put Ryan on a stretcher and carry him off the field, just as the back up jogs onto the field. I can’t watch any more. Getting out of my seat I hope Ryans ok and just got the air knocked out of him. I trudge to all the concession stand. It seams the whole stadium is here for the injury break. I wait in line for what feels like hours wondering if Ryans well play or even play next season. I groan, this does not look good for all steeler fans. Finally its my turn. I tell him what I want then wait for it to be cooked. It takes forever to cook chicken. When its finished the man hands it to me, and I try and walk up the steps but theirs a ton of people coming down the stairs. They had excited looks on there faces. When I get out of the tunnel I’m surprised. The score board says, seven to seven with no time left on the clock. The steelers were still in this. The refs and players walk out on to the field for the overtime coin toss. You could feel the excitement in the air as millions of people held there breath. I couldn’t here what the patriots called but I see the coin fly up in to the lights. It lands on tails again. There is a ton of screaming and applause. “Who won” I ask the guy sitting next to me.
“Steelers” he replies.
“Yes” I say to myself.
“I’m pulling for the patriots”
“I was born in Pittsburgh so I’ve always been a steeler. Just then I see Ryan limb onto the field. “How long has he been in”
“He just got in. I heard that he has a hyper extended ankle.”
“Wow thats got to hurt, buts hes tuff.”
The Steeler offense walks to the line. Its a pass. Ryan throws a horrible pass that falls incomplete. The next play looks like the same thing. On the third play Ryan throws it and its almost picked. The punt team walks on to the field. They set up in there usual punt formation but the center snaps it to Rashard Mendanhall, the starting running back. He starts running down the field. “There’s no way he can make it to that first down. There’s no way.” But he just keeps running. Now hes clearly past the line and theirs still nobody in front of him. Hes at the thirty, then the twenty, then the ten, touchdown.
“YES” I yell. The steelers one it in overtime on a fake punt eighty yard run. I’m so happy, but I feel bad for the guy sitting next to me. He looks ok. Then he gets up and leaves. The game MVP was Ryan White.
Spanish Family Tree
Me llamo Logan. Yo tengo doce años. Yo soy perezoso y delgado. Yo tengo el pelo castaño y bajo. Me gusta jugar Lacrosse y correr. Me gusta llevar un pantalones cortos and una camiseta. ¡No me gusta llevar los jeans!
Se llama Staci. Ella tiene cuarenta años. Ella es comicá y interesante. Ella tiene el pelo castaño pero los ojos verde. Le gusta cantar. Le gusta llevar ropa bonita.
Se llama Mark. Él tiene cuarenta y dos años. Él es divertido y trabajador. Él es alto y fuerte. Le gusta esquiar. Le gusta llevar los jeans y una camisa.
Se llama Bailey. Ella tiene nueve años.. Ella es inteligente y simpaticá. Ella tiene el pelo castaño y muy baja. Le gusta nadar. Le gusta llevar una camisa bonita y un vestido.
Se llama Danny. Él tiene treinta y seite años. Él es comicó y paciente. Le gusta aprender español. Él tiene el pelo castaño y los ojos azules.
Se llama Kate. Ella tiene treinta y seite años. Ella es inteligente y simpática. Le gusta escribir y leer. Ella tiene el pelo negro y rizado.
Se llama Braylin. Ella tiene uno años. Ella es pequeña y linda. Le gusta comer. Ella tiene el pelo corto y castaño.
“We are here captain! This is were the treasure should be” says the first mate.
“Well than find it you lazy swob” screams the captain. His voice as gruff as sandpaper.
“Yes sir” said the first mate. “But theirs nothing here, just a waterfall.”
The two pirates stood in the middle of a clearing surrounded by trees. In the middle there was a huge water fall that flowed in a river that ran straight through the woods. Both of the pirates had been following the river and were very tired.
“Where is she” mumbles the captain
“What are we looking for” says the younger of the two. His eyes scanning the clearing.
The captain stood tall, his beard blowing in the wind as he grumbles “the Stone of Hearts mate, a jewel so big you can’t palm the thing.”
“Whats that over there captain” says the first mate voice growing high as he gets excited.
“Arrggg you may be on to something.”
The Science Fair
Aerodynamics is key to making a paper airplane fly. The paper must cut through the air to travel a great distance. If a plane is not folded correctly it will be like throwing a normal piece of paper. That is why planes need to be aerodynamic. There are four forces involved in aerodynamics, lift, thrust, and drag.
Lift keeps the plane airborne and is produced by the movement of airfoil. (Airfoil is any surface that is designed to aid in controlling an aircraft by using air.) Three theories best describe Lift, Newtons Third Law, the Coanda Effect, and Bernoulli’s Principle. In Newtons Third Law says “the mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear. The Coanda Effect is the tendency of a moving fluid (air) to attach itself to a surface (an airplane) and flow with it. The other the theory of lift is Bernoulli’s Principle. This principle states that “as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases.
. Thrust is the force that propels the plane forward. The force starts when air is pushed in the direction opposite to the flight. and is explained in Newtons Second Law of Motion which states that “the acceleration of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force. While thrust is created by a spinning propeller or a jet engine on a normal plane, paper airplanes have neither. Instead they use the movement of your hand. The hand movement can only a certain amount of time depending on how hard the plane is thrown This is the reason paper planes cannot fly as far and as long as regular airplanes.
Gravity is probably the most know force involved in aerodynamics. Gravity pulls the paper airplane down, the opposite of lift. In order for a plane to fly far it must have a light weight. ON a large plane there is a jet that keeps it up while on a paper airplane there is nothing and it falls down after a period of time.
The last force involved in aerodynamics is called Drag. Any force that resists any forward motion through a fluid (air) that may be caused during a flight is called drag. Drag is increased with area and resists any forward motion. Without a fluid there is no drag. Drag is a force and has magnitude and a direction. To get the paper airplane to go anywhere there needs to limited amount of drag drag.
The purpose of this experiment is to learn more about aerodynamics and flight. It is hypothesized that the more a paper airplane is wind resistant the farther it will fly. The objective of experimenting on paper airplanes is to help improve modern flight and reduces crashes.
- Paper (best if thin and not crumbled)
- The book “Paper Airplanes” by Phil Joho
- A wide open space preferably inside
- Gather all supplies
- Than make the “Speed Demon” from the book
- Go to open space, preferably indoors
- Put thumb on one side and index finger on the other side
- Now throw forward like a dart
- Release when arm is at a complete right angle
- Now sit back and watch it fly
- Once the plane lands measure the distance flown in meters and record it
- Repeat steps 4-8 for a total of ten repeated trials
- Repeat steps 1-9 to build “the Floater”, “The Classic”, “ The Eagle” and “ Ye Old Faithful”
Results and Conclusion
The effect of different types of paper on the distance flown is summarized in the table on the previous page. “The Floater” had the best average of 11.963 meters. After that was the “Speed Demon” that lives up to its name with an average of 10.37 meters followed closely by the “Classic” that got an average of 10.325 meters. The came the “Eagle” with 8.155 meters and in last was “Ye Old Faithful” with 5.862 meters. In this experiment there was a range of 6.101 which is larger than expected. This data did support the hypotheses because when the lightness and aerodynamic increased the distance the planes flew increased.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of different types of planes on the distance flown. The lighter and more aerodynamic paper planes flew farther than the ones that were less aerodynamic. The data supported the research shown on lift, drag, thrust, and gravity because the planes that flew the farthest controlled most of these forces. These findings agree with Newtons Three Laws of Motion, Bernoulli’s Principle, and the Coanda Effect. The aerodynamic planes could slice through the air while the other ones struggled to push through. Additional experiments could be conducted to determine how other planes in the book will fly. This experiment could be improved by flying the paper airplanes in a larger place and by using a machine to throw the planes so that they are released at the exact same spot.
Elert, Glenn. “Aerodynamic Drag.” physics.info/drag. (2009). Web. November 26, 2011
Joho, Phil. Paper Airplanes: Step by Step Instructions. Dingley, Victoria: Hinkler, 2001.
“The Basic Forces of Thrust, Drag and Lift.” www.infoplease.com/ceb/sci/AO856483.html. (2007). Web. November 25, 2011
The day the earth shakes,
The day the seas turn
The day the storms blow
The day the fires burn
The day the city’s fall
The day the buildings tumble
The day the roads crack
The day the bridges crumble
Black is death
It is the sound of fingernails screeching against a blackboard
Black is the smell of a rotten corpse
It is the taste of molded bread
Black feels like endless despair
The Vampire’s Revenge
A crack of lightning flashed and was followed by a loud boom of thunder. Our van pulled into the driveway of our new house. As we got out, I questioned why we bought the house in the first place. It was a real fixer-upper. Most of shingles on the roof were missing and the windows were broken. It was dark out but every once in a while lightning struck, revealing more stuff about the house. I’m going to live here I thought. No way. It was bad enough that we moved but now I have to sleep in this dump. Worst of all, nobody lived any were near us. “Freddy come and help your dad take out the boxes”. I barely heard my mom above the storm. I wanted to be inside and reading my favorite book, The Vampire’s Revenge. It’s a great book about a guy who gets his blood sucked out by a vampire and tries to stop it with different things that are said to stop a vampire, but in the end all fail. My mom thinks that the book is terrible and thinks I should read books like Tom Sawyer and all that other junk.
My thoughts drifted off when I heard a loud howl that no human could ever make. “What was that?” I murmured. My dad would probably know. He studies animals for a living. We moved here because of him. He got a once in a lifetime opportunity to study the wild life in the woods around the house. “Fred, please come here. Your dad really needs your help,” my mom pleaded. I walked over and started helping my dad.
After spending the whole day unpacking boxes I was wiped out. I fell asleep before I made it to my bed. I was woken late in the night by a loud crash. I ran over to the window to see what had happened. As I looked out through the window, I could see a huge dark object in the dim light.. I ran to get my mother, but came to sudden halt That’s when I noticed a door that had not been there before. It was nothing spectacular. It simply had not been there before. I was sure of it because I had seen a really cool picture of a vampire sucking the blood out some British guy right where the door was now.
Any way, I felt the sudden urge to open the door. Inside were dark stairs. Cobwebs littered the ceiling. Each step I took made the stairs groan like a mummy waking up after sleeping for a thousand years. Finally I reached the bottom. My flashlight reveled a tenebrous room full of boxes, and crates of all sizes. In the middle of the room was what looked like a coffin. I walked over to get a better look. It was definitely a coffin. It had that weird shape, and gold hinges. Yup, it’s definitely a coffin I thought.
Creakkkk, the coffin slowly opened. I jumped back in horror. A pale white hand reached out of the coffin, pushing the top off. Inside was a ghastly man. He wore black pants, black shoes, a white shirt and a cape over it. His bones creaked as he got up. His teeth caught the gleam of my flashlight revealing two sets of fangs. “”Hello, he said to me in a low creepy voice. I stepped back. “You look so tasty,” he said in the same voice. Then he lunged. I sidestepped and ran
towards the door. I ran up the steps so fast they didn’t’ have time to groan. I twisted the doorknob but got stopped short because the door was locked. “Help!” I screamed at the top of my lungs. No answer. Suddenly I heard the groans of the stairs as the man slowly walked up .He had a confident smile as if he had just won a gold medal. “Help!” I wailed. “Somebody please help me!” Again there was no reply. He walked closer. Closer and closer he walked until he was right next to me. “What do you want?” I sputtered. “Your blood!” he answered back. And with one swift movement he had it.